1. Robert E. Lee Endures a Precipitous Reset in Maryland

    By Alexander Rossino Debate about the importance of the loss of Robert E. Lee’s Special Orders No. 191 to the outcome of the September 1862 Maryland Campaign has long revolved around the response of Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan upon reading the document found by a Federal s
  2. The Frightful Violence of Antietam Comes Alive in This New Book

    By Ethan S. Rafuse It has been more than 20 years since the appearance of the last truly major study of the 1862 Maryland Campaign, Joseph L. Harsh’s magnificent 1999 study Taken at the Flood . To be sure, it can hardly be said that the campaign that produced the greatest surrender
  3. The Real Story Behind 58 Confederate Bodies Tossed in a Well 

    By Steven R. Stotelmyer On September 14, 1862, fighting broke out on South Mountain, Md., as portions of the Army of the Potomac clashed with Army of Northern Virginia troops holding passes over the mountain. On the 15th, the day after particularly heavy fighting at Fox’s Gap, Ohi
  4. Can a Photograph Tell the Full Story of War’s Horror? This Antietam Ambrotype Just Might

    By D. Scott Hartwig What can we learn from an old photograph, a moment in time captured on a glass plate negative? In the case of the image above—taken by Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan on September 19, 1862, two days after the Battle of Antietam—the answer is quite a bi